the copper cycle history

[10] The bulk Earth (mantle and crust) is estimated to contain 30 ppm of copper [McDonough, 1998]. Here we combine the natural and anthropogenic cycles of copper into one grand cycle, utilizing information and methods from these past works, but also updating values and adding other reservoirs and flows that have not previously been quantified or combined into a comprehensive copper stocks and flows analysis. As for crustal production, 60 Pg/yr of oceanic crust and 4.5 Pg/yr of continental crust were used in this study [Reymer and Schubert, 1984]. The observable universe, made up of light matter, comprises less than 10%.

instead of any other chemical to create a reaction. turned back into the similar blue hue that was It is clearer that approximately 25 Pg/yr of sediment is deposited to the oceans (see section 3.1.5 below). Rather, the first analysis of various global stocks and flows of copper was published by Nriagu in 1979. This increase is accompanied by an increase in the general use of fertilizers, but also to the inclusion of copper‐based fertilizers in our mid‐1990s calculation. The copper entering the ocean is not balanced by the amount of copper leaving the ocean, resulting in an increase of about 1900 Gg/yr in oceanic sediments. The balanced

Glacial ice contains an average of 84 ppt Cu in Greenland, but only 6 ppt Cu in Antarctica [Hong et al., 1996]. The most extensively studied of these cycles is certainly the global carbon cycle [Falkowski et al., 2000].

In the present study, the exogenic cycle is extended to include the anthroposphere. Investigating the sustainability of the global silver supply, reserves, stocks in society and market price using different approaches. But copper and its principal alloys, bronze and brass, have always been more than a means of decorative embellishment.

Analysis of these data indicates a global average unconsolidated sediment density of 2.0 g/cc. We scale the Yamasoe et al. With increased human population and food consumption habits, for example, human copper consumption in food has increased. Our evidence suggests that this imbalance can be attributed in large part to the present human perturbation of the long‐term rock cycle, as opposed to the climate‐induced natural cycles of denudation rates.

Scaling these emissions to the global level based upon GDP is problematic, but the resulting flow is minimal. The earliest workers in copper soon found that it could be easily hammered into sheets and the sheets in turn worked into shapes which became more complex as their skill increased. The copper residing in the in‐use stocks of the anthroposphere appears to be increasing at a rate of about 8000 Gg/yr. [1978] calculate a copper concentration of 6.4 ppm. The total of 233.1 Pg/yr of NPP, together with the average concentrations of copper in vegetation (10 ppm) and in marine organisms (12 ppm), are used to compute total copper mobilized [Hewitt and Smith, 1975; Li, 1991]. The most obvious is that animals eat plants containing trace amounts of metals, and then produce metal‐containing manure that is used as fertilizer. [2002] determined the total sea salt flow to the atmosphere to be about 1 × 1013 kg/yr, of which 98.5% is redeposited onto the ocean and 1.5% is deposited onto land. [5] This paper couples the work of Graedel, Nriagu, and others into a comprehensive, anthrobiogeochemical Earth system cycle for copper. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. Reaction 4: However, recent studies suggest the primitive mantle (the mantle that existed after core formation but before crust formation) may have contained only 20 ppm of copper [Palme and St. O'Neill, 2004]. [54] In addition to providing an update and enhancement of the Nriagu [1979] analysis of the global copper cycle, this study also provides an opportunity to assess where copper stocks are accumulating or being depleted, and to what degree.

solution that is neutral or electrically charged and can be used to determine pH.

Owing to the lack of further data and the large percentage of standing freshwater that Nriagu's estimate represents, his copper concentration was used for all the world's freshwater lakes, as well as for marsh/wetland freshwater. Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences. Though an estimate for the mass of the universe, 3 × 1046 Gg, exists, it is believed that over 90% of this quantity is dark matter.

Despite a reduction in copper mobilization and subsequent freshwater transport to the oceans, the ocean would still be a net accumulator of copper, indicating that natural variability in denudation rates also defines the total freshwater flow of copper to the oceans. This mass was multiplied by the typical copper concentration of ocean crust, 78 ppm [Wedepohl and Hartmann, 1994]. Integrating Material Stock Dynamics Into Economy-Wide Material Flow Accounting: Concepts, Modelling, and Global Application for 1900–2050. With the advent of Earth satellite observations, it has become possible to estimate the area and total vegetative volume of fires, and to determine their likely origin. after adding the nitric acid the copper In our analysis, this flow is an internal cycle within agricultural stock, so is not quantified explicitly.

[52] In comparison to our results, it appears that Nriagu [1979] may have overestimated the magnitudes of some of the stocks and flows in the global copper cycle, including all comparable reservoirs except freshwater and marine organisms.

Although the sum total of copper in all reservoirs should account for every atom of copper in the Earth system, the flows do not account comprehensively for the total mass of copper mobilized and transformed per year. Comparison with the theoretical “natural” (i.e., early Holocene) copper cycle reveals these and other anthropogenic perturbations, and indicates that even without human influence the present‐day cycle is not in balance on a year … solution a grey color. An assessment of metal supply sustainability as an input to policy: security of supply extraction rates, stocks-in-use, recycling, and risk of scarcity. The Moon, core, mantle, and crust are the largest repositories of copper, owing to their sheer mass.

Using the same carbon to dry matter mass conversion ratio, 2.2, utilized by Smil [2000] in his assessment of the global phosphorous cycle, we convert the recent estimates of global NPP of land (56.4 Pg/yr of carbon) and of the ocean (48.5 Pg/yr of carbon) to total dry matter [Field et al., 1998]. We choose 25 ppm Cu as an average estimate to calculate the stock of copper in the mantle. [50] Conversely, the flows of copper are dominated by the anthropogenic system. Facebook; Twitter; WeChat; Linked In; Reddit; Email; J. Chem. Atmospheric emissions from mobile sources such as diesel and gasoline are considered negligible for copper [Pacyna and Pacyna, 2001]. [16] The mean global ocean copper concentration used in this study is 145 ng/kg (ppt), which is an average of two determinations [Quinby‐Hunt and Turekian, 1983; Nozaki, 1997], and takes into account the increase in copper concentration with depth. Though early discussions were essentially descriptive, by 1950 enough information had been generated to fill an entire textbook [Rankama and Sahama, 1950]. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. The total mass of subducting consolidated crust used in this study is 60 Pg/yr, taken from values of the global rock cycle [Mackenzie et al., 2004]. containing soluble salt form an insoluble salt when combined and can help determine the amount As such, we are extracting copper at a rate that is over a million times the rate of renewal. [48] Copper stocks were determined from Earth's core to the Moon in order to account for all copper within the gravitational orbit of Earth.

Although iron became the basic metal of every Western civilisation from Rome onwards, it was the copper metals which were used when a combination of strength and durability was required. The percent recovery came out to be 17%. Morgan et al.

Other studies have derived different total sea‐salt flows to the atmosphere, of which Richardson et al. We estimated the copper contained in regolith using the Crust 2.0 model of unconsolidated (soft) sediment thicknesses on a 2° × 2° global grid [Bassin et al., 2000]. After decanting,

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Characterizing anthropogenic stocks and flows into a detailed overview constitutes a “technological materials cycle.” Technological materials cycles, that is, cycles that quantify the material use and discard of human activities, are constructed by studying the activities of industries, governments, and customers.

Copper is an essential nutrient required in biological processes, including electron transfer enzymes, although too much copper can be toxic [Georgopoulos et al., 2001].

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